Initially the children were entrained to a mu-alpha rhythm (7 to 9 Hz) to decrease theta waves. After the initial mu-rhythm entrainment, they entrained SMR-beta waves for 22 minute sessions. The results as interpreted by TOVA demonstrated significant improvements in: inattentiveness, impulsivity, and variability. Teachers and parents also reported behavioral improvements among the children. Using the right brainwave entrainment protocol may be a potential Adderall alternative for those with attentional deficits.
SPEAKER: You know those people who always seem to be smiling? What's their secret? Turns out a lot of the smiles come from saying sayonara stress. Want in on that action? Well, here are three ways to stress less so you can smile more. First up, play your stress away/ why should kids have all the fun? Your boss might not let everyone out for recess, but you can find 15 minutes every day to do something you really enjoy. Go to a driving range. Play ping pong, cards, or board games. Just keep it friendly. Remember, winning isn't everything. Number 2. Give it up for pet power. Have you ever seen anyone looking stressed when playing with an adorable puppy? Neither have we. Interacting with animals has been proven to lower stress in almost everyone. Simply petting a dog or a cat lowers your blood pressure considerably and reduces levels of the stress-causing hormone cortisol. So pet your pooch. Don't have a pet? Borrow a friend's, or visit a local shelter for some much-needed cuddle time. And the number-one way to stress less? Laugh it off. How does laughter love thee? Let us count the ways. Laughter fills your body and lungs with oxygen. It makes your brain release Mr. And Mrs. Happy Hormones, the endorphins. It bolsters your immune system and helps you, well, be well. It also helps your brain release natural pain relievers, and may even stop painful muscle spasms. It's true. He who laughs best stresses less. So learn to play, adopt a stray, and laugh away. You'll feel great. And it will show.
Lucid dreaming: A lucid dream is considered a dream that a person is aware of and often able to consciously manipulate.  Many have alleged that using brainwave entrainment technology makes it easier to experience a lucid dream.  Scientists have studied this phenomenon and noticed that beta frequencies within the range of 13 to 19 Hz tend to be generated to keep the person conscious.  Additionally there is significant increased activity in the parietal lobes of the brain, which allows an individual to stay conscious.
Tired of self help tapes, pills and chewing gum to help you quit smoking? The New York Hypnosis Center can help you stop smoking with the healing powers of hypnosis. Hypnosis' focus is much more than an attempt to strengthen your ability to resist, but rather, it is designed to help eliminate your desire to smoke. If you're tired of those quick gimmicks to kick your habit, visit www.nyhypnosis.net today. We can help you discover why you smoke and how you can become a non-smoker. …
I have had your Equisync CD’s for a little more than 2 years. Some recent stresses prompted me to start listening to them again. Wow……these cd’s are no joke. I have been playing them consistently for the past 2 weeks and they are a tremendous help. I have to ask about the Equisync III cds. Can this elicit a detox reaction? I played it in its entirety one night and the next morning I felt like I was having a healing crisis. I am not complaining 🙂 I believe these particular cds allows tremendous amounts of healing light to enter the body through the higher chakras.
Gamma brainwaves occur during creative thinking and processing of memory and language and in many learning activities. These brainwaves are not present at all when a person is under anesthesia, but return as soon as the person becomes conscious again. Multiple scientific studies have shown gamma brainwave entrainment to be helpful for reducing distractibility, improving short-term memory, improving motor coordination, and relieving migraine headaches.

I had my first balayage color and haircut with Chris. I am extremely low maintainence with my hair... Chris colored and styled it in a way I can manage on a day to day basis. Prices are super reasonable... using the Yelp first time discount, I paid less than $150 for the balayage, hair cut and blowout. The salon is beautiful and clean -- a perfect addition to downtown troy.


Purchase Printable PDF Gift Vouchers online for holidays, birthdays or any occasion. Choose from our vast selection of Advanced Innovative Technology services such as floating, massage, or FIR Sauna. Or, choose any amount and it can be redeemed for any of our services. A variety of background styles are available to fit that special occasion. Just fill out the name and email address you would like to send it to, purchase, and we’ll deliver it via email to your recipient. They can then print it out and redeem it at The Chicago Stress Relief Center.
Gamma brainwaves occur during creative thinking and processing of memory and language and in many learning activities. These brainwaves are not present at all when a person is under anesthesia, but return as soon as the person becomes conscious again. Multiple scientific studies have shown gamma brainwave entrainment to be helpful for reducing distractibility, improving short-term memory, improving motor coordination, and relieving migraine headaches.
The buyer / downloader of the royalty free brainwave entrainment music / downloads on this site assumes all risks in using the music, waving any claims against the owners of Royalty Free Meditation Music.com, its affiliates and its parent company, Spire Audio, for any and all mental or physical injuries. This includes all self-created suggestions for mood altering, brain wave states altering, and for self-improvement or motivation. The buyer/user also agrees to assume liabilities when other persons have access to the Binaural beats or any music / downloads and/or anything it produces, including WAV, MP3, files or CDs, whether for commercial or private use. In no case will Enlightened Audio.com, its affiliates and its parent company, Spire Audio, be liable for chance, accidental, special, direct or indirect damages resulting from the use or misuse of our music.
However, those with ASD are sometimes also diagnosed with ADHD. Although they are different conditions, some of the symptoms can be intertwined, which it appears may be the case with your grandson. So I would start by trying out my tracks for ADHD. You can try those out for free on my YouTube channel and I’ve put them together in a playlist here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKao2oZZPnw&list=PLveg0IEcZWN5iVmMduR9UjLzX_YgCetds. The corresponding MP3 versions for those tracks can be found on my site here: https://www.mindamend.com/intelligence-and-brain-power/. I hope that helps.

With digital upgrades, Berger’s machine is still in use today, known as an electroencephalography machine, or EEG. Berger used his machine to study the brains of psychologically normal and abnormal people and discovered the first brainwave, called the alpha wave and also known as the Berger wave, along with the faster beta wave, which he observed suppressing the alpha wave when subjects opened their closed eyes. 
SPEAKER: You know those people who always seem to be smiling? What's their secret? Turns out a lot of the smiles come from saying sayonara stress. Want in on that action? Well, here are three ways to stress less so you can smile more. First up, play your stress away/ why should kids have all the fun? Your boss might not let everyone out for recess, but you can find 15 minutes every day to do something you really enjoy. Go to a driving range. Play ping pong, cards, or board games. Just keep it friendly. Remember, winning isn't everything. Number 2. Give it up for pet power. Have you ever seen anyone looking stressed when playing with an adorable puppy? Neither have we. Interacting with animals has been proven to lower stress in almost everyone. Simply petting a dog or a cat lowers your blood pressure considerably and reduces levels of the stress-causing hormone cortisol. So pet your pooch. Don't have a pet? Borrow a friend's, or visit a local shelter for some much-needed cuddle time. And the number-one way to stress less? Laugh it off. How does laughter love thee? Let us count the ways. Laughter fills your body and lungs with oxygen. It makes your brain release Mr. And Mrs. Happy Hormones, the endorphins. It bolsters your immune system and helps you, well, be well. It also helps your brain release natural pain relievers, and may even stop painful muscle spasms. It's true. He who laughs best stresses less. So learn to play, adopt a stray, and laugh away. You'll feel great. And it will show.
While the physiological and psychological processes being uncovered by brain science in the study of brainwaves is sometimes complex and still being investigated, certain basic principles are well-established, easily understood, and helpful for achieving the most effectively use of brainwave entrainment when seeking relaxation, improved sleep, lowering of anxiety, or other goals. This important background information and scientific knowledge presented here includes: 
Back in 1839, Dr. Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, a Prussian physicist and meteorologist, discovered that when you introduce tones with certain frequencies into each ear, you could actually entrain the electrical patterns within the brain to resonate in very specific patterns, called brainwave states. The last two decades have seen an amazing amount of scientific interest in this world transforming field of study, laying the foundation for the hundreds of studies conducted since then, boosting the technology’s significance and importance immeasurably.
…I got curious about the Equisync II CDs and it was the 2nd track that started giving me some body signs that revealed me I was in the alpha state. I never practiced meditation before, however, I follow the Gurdjieff and Ouspensky teachings which, if you are not aware, tell us how to do quite the same thing as meditation in our everyday lives while performing our daily tasks. I also believe that Equisync II was more appropriate for me because my life is also dedicated to collective causes, my personal life is totally under control, but your CDs were able to relieve my severe depression after only 3 days of practicing, my chronic insomnia condition which had been lasting for over 27 years seemed to be finally healed. I am truly amazed, really.
I believe that there is a frequency at which a brain functions, they can vary depending on circadian rhythm or other factors. You can check the various effects on the brain caused by varying frequencies. Check this link -> Binaural beats. When we expose our brain to isochronic/binaural beats, it has a resonating effect on the brain, i.e. the brain starts to alter its frequency in order to synchronise with the tone. Once the specific frequency is achieved, you will have the desired effect (depending on the specific frequency you are trying to induce).

Also, don’t you think that the inherent hemispheric synchronization using binaural beats might be a positive benefit within itself? While it’s true that the huge majority of us use both sides of our brains most of the time, it’s also true that many of us are a bit polarized to one side or the other in general, or when doing a particular kind of activity or focus. I’ve found stimulating a more equally and consistently whole brain activity has it’s own benefits other than the entrainment aspect.
Have you ever found yourself in a tough situation where you couldn’t think of a way out? If you have, it might be due to a lack of Alpha brainwave activity. It’s been proven that increased production of these brainwaves allows people to deal with and solve problems at a faster rate and with far fewer difficulties. This is made possible thanks to the brainwave’s ability to get rid of “mental blocks” that prevent solving the problem at hand.
"When you're stressed, there's a battle being fought inside you," Mangieri says. "The antioxidants and phytonutrients found in berries fight in your defense, helping improve your body's response to stress and fight stress-related free radicals." Research has also shown that blueberry eaters experience a boost in natural killer cells, "a type of white blood cell that plays a vital role in immunity, critical for countering stress," says Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, Health's contributing nutrition editor.
I was diagnosed with “acute high anxiety, major clinical depression,and ptsd” 16 years ago. I have clinically addressed these disorders with a number of medications, which none have helped. I am so lucky I have found this simple easy to practice method of practice, that I have found these beats and tones so essential that I indoctrinated them into my daily life, and have come to the realization, that someday very soon I will awake and will not suffer from these burdens these disorders ever again.
Admitted, I haven’t listened to all the tracks yet, but while listening to the demo alone over the course of a month-and-a-half I, too, had a transcendental experience that was amazing! So I determined pretty quickly to save the money and buy your product, even though I really can’t afford it. Yes, over the last 3 years meditation has become that important to me.
Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology – CIM14. Berlin, Germany 2014 BINAURAL AUDIO RELAXATION TECHNIQUES FOR PEOPLE WITH ANXIETY AND STRESS Geraldine Molina, Emilia Sainz, Levi Serrano, Santiago Rentería, Diana Urquiza Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe Correspondence should be addressed to: rosas_ger@hotmail.com, dianauf@itesm.mx Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been a great development in different studies related to encephalography and the psychological consequences of binaural audio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of binaural audio as a relaxation method for people that suffer anxiety and stress. The study took place at ITESM, Santa Fe Campus, where twenty participants around 21 years old took part of the study. They were divided into two groups, Experimental and Control. The first one listened to the Theta binaural stimuli and the second one listened to a stimulus with nature sounds (birds and wind). The results show that the experimental group got to conscious relaxation. The control group had an unconscious relaxation (sleep), but when the stimuli stopped they recovered their stress level, for some participants it increased. 1. BACKGROUND At the end of the 19th century, Pierre Janet, a French psychologist, discovered that his patients relaxed when they were exposed to rhythmic light patterns. Hans Berger showed in 1924 that brainwaves could be read and studied through an encephalogram [2]. The first studies were done using visual stimuli, while later studies were done using sounds [3]. Brainwaves are caused by changes in the electric tension between two points in the brain cortex. The electroencephalogram has been used to analyze neurophysiological relations that exist between mental states and brainwave frequencies. When somebody’s mental state changes from alert to somnolence, low amplitude and high frequency brain waves turn into high amplitude and low frequency [4]. 2. BINAURAL AUDIO Giuseppe Tartini discovered combination tones. These occur when two tones are heard at the same time and the listener perceives a third tone. The frequency of the third tone is calculated by the difference between the first two tones, as shown in equation 1. (∆   ) [8] (1) The superior olivary complex integrates the phase differences, which makes possible the perception of the third tone. For example, if the left ear hears a 400Hz tone and the right ear a 410Hz tone, the listener will perceive a 10Hz tone [9]. This third tone is also known as binaural frequency. The binaural frequency is directed from the superior olivary complex to the reticular formation and the brain cortex, where the electroencephalogram can read its effect. The Frequency Following Response (FFR) phenomenon happens when the frequency read by the encephalogram is equal to the combination tone frequency. When this happens, the frequency resonates in the brain stimulating the reticular formation inducing different psychological states. Brainwave bands and psychological consequences are shown in Table 1 [16]. Table 1: Brainwave Frequencies and Psychological Consequences Brainwaves Frequency (Hz) Amplitude (μV) Mental StateDelta 0.1 - 3 20-200 Consciousness is lost, sleep without dreams Theta 4 - 7 20-100 REM Sleep, meditation, and Creativity Alpha 8 - 12 20-60 Conscious Relaxation Beta 13 - 40 2-20 Concentration, Alert, and cognition (High levels are associated with anxiety) It has been proved that delta sound waves in binaural audio therapy have anxiolytic effects on patients with pre-surgery anxiety [7]. Theta binaural sound waves are also helpful with relaxation and anxiety reduction [11]. According to the results presented by the company Regus, in Mexico, 75% of employed people suffer from stress and anxiety. These cause social, health, and economic problems at the same time that productivity decreases [5]. According to the Mexican National Labor Organization, stress means that the GDP decreases from 0.5 to 3.5%. Stress leads to anxiety, irritability, fear, depression, suicidal thoughts, and lack of concentration. Some other symptoms are headaches, nausea, dizziness, muscular tension, insomnia, and tachycardia [6]. There are different techniques to induce relaxation like meditation. New relaxation techniques with binaural audio have been developed through Neurosciences. 3. OBJECTIVES • Evaluate and analyze binaural audio therapy effects (Theta frequencies) on people that suffer anxiety and stress (Students at ITESM), in order to induce relaxation and reduce anxiety. • Determine if the binaural therapy induced relaxation in the experimental group and compare the results to those from the control group. • Through the STAI test and the electroencephalogram results, determine which stimulus is more efficient. 4. HYPOTHESIS Hi: Frequency Following Response phenomenon will take place, as Delta and Theta bands will share frequencies with the combination tones. Hi: Beta brainwaves will show up when the stimulus begins, as they are related to concentration and alertness. 5. EXPERIMENT Twenty participants were randomly divided into two groups, control and experimental. The first group listened to sounds of

Natural menopause relief is sought out by millions of women who suffer from the symptoms of menopause wreaking havoc on their bodies. Much of this havoc is caused by a diet filled with bad fats, too much protein, and a lack of nutrients. Eating healthily and exercising are your first steps to getting healthy. A diet filled with fruits and vegetables is filled with nearly all of the nutrients you need to be healthy and balanced. Yet, sometimes, we need a little bit of extra help. In this article, we’re going to talk about some herbal supplements that help balance out your hormones and make the symptoms of menopause much better.
A high quality binaural beat MP3 inspired by the brainwave patterns of Zen meditators. A deep ambiance of strings with opera tones can be heard. This MP3 is inspired by the work of Maxwell Cade and his research with experienced Zen meditators. Cade noticed that this pattern emerged after deeper Zen meditations, and so this is often called the “afterglow of meditation.” Note: that this recording uses binaural beats. – headphones are required. Please remember to never listen to this music whilst driving or operating machinery of any kind.

“Stress and sleepless nights are closely linked,” Buenaver says. “If you’re in pain, tend to worry, or are coping with a difficult situation in your life, you may have more stress hormones than usual circulating in your body. A poor night’s sleep adds even more. And those hormones may never be fully broken down. It’s like running an engine in fifth gear all the time.”


It is starting to rain, and you find a small cave with a candle already lit and take shelter from the approaching storm. This track is the deepest meditation you can go… Taking you down to a Theta State Of mind 12Hz to 7Hz and finally to 4H. This state has been used to assist with recall, fantasy, imagery, creativity, planning, dreaming, switching thoughts, Zen meditation, drowsiness; Access to subconscious images, deep meditation, reduced blood pressure, said to cure addictions. This CD produces near Sleep brainwaves, conducive to profound inner peace, “mystical truths”, transforming unconsciously held limiting beliefs, physical & emotional healing, purpose of life exploration, inner wisdom, faith, meditation, some psychic abilities, & retrieving unconscious material. Just listening to this alone will send you to a calm, tranquil place in your mind. AMAZING!

In the average person, the activity of one brain hemisphere is dominant over the other, called brain lateralization. This hemispheric imbalance leads us to experience the world in a black and white way, perceiving separation over connectedness. When brainwave entrainment is used to synchronize brainwave activity in both hemispheres simultaneously, a person can more easily integrate information from all parts of the brain and solve problems with greater intelligence and sensitivity.

Admitted, I haven’t listened to all the tracks yet, but while listening to the demo alone over the course of a month-and-a-half I, too, had a transcendental experience that was amazing! So I determined pretty quickly to save the money and buy your product, even though I really can’t afford it. Yes, over the last 3 years meditation has become that important to me.
Additionally, most of the studies have been conducted with extremely small samples and the touted benefits are vague. When studying the effects, it would be beneficial to hook each participant up to an EEG, note initial brainwave activity, then post-entrainment, note any changes. Although certain conditions share similarities in brainwave activity, this is clearly not always the case.
At the end of just two weeks of use (I was now into the Equisync II cds), I experienced for the first time ever, what my partner described as Nirvana. I experienced a complete dissolution of individual consciousness, felt at one with everything, and felt the deepest peace, love, and complete bliss I had ever, ever experienced in my life. Since you do all the research on this, you know what I’m describing. Unfortunately, language does not express it. I have never experienced mind altering drugs, but I recall watching a documentary of LSD research, and one of the subjects described the exact same “feelings” as I had when she had received a micro amount of LSD.
In Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon, Anabel makes a cameo appearance with Looker in Poni Plains. The two block the way to Poni Coast until the UB incident at Poni Grove is resolved, at which point Anabel leaves to go to the Battle Tree for training. It is mentioned that in these games, Anabel and Looker are on vacation in Alola instead of being there for a mission.
They are a useful and effective tool that allow you a structured means in which to entrain your brain into a desired, new brainwave state using an intended set frequency range of the audio track. Frequency ranges for desired sleep, recovery and deep meditation states to different/higher frequency ranges for performance “flow-states” and high-level focus and calculation.
Since the beginning of the 21 st century, there has been a great development in different studies related to encephalography and the psychological consequences of binaural audio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of binaural audio as a relaxation method for people that suffer anxiety and stress. The study took place at ITESM, Santa Fe Campus, where twenty participants around 21 years old took part of the study. They were divided into two groups, Experimental and Control. The first one listened to the Theta binaural stimuli and the second one listened to a stimulus with nature sounds (birds and wind). The results show that the experimental group got to conscious relaxation. The control group had an unconscious relaxation (sleep), but when the stimuli stopped they recovered their stress level, for some participants it increased.
Experts haven't figured out why having your body pressed and prodded works wonders, but they know that it does. Studies suggest massage can speed up weight gain in premature babies, improve lung function in asthmatics and boost immunity in men with HIV. If you can't indulge in regular full-body massages, treat yourself to the occasional pedicure, manicure or facial—all nurturing, hands-on treats that offer some of the mind-body benefits of massage. 
That all said, we are all different and have our own different limits. So I generally advise that you just be aware of how you are feeling, and if you feel like you are getting a bit fatigued from it, it’s probably time to stop or at least take a break. When listening over long extended periods, I recommend that you keep yourself well-hydrated. Your brain needs a good supply of water to function well, especially if you are studying hard and increasing your brainwave electrical activity.
“So many people are held back in life simply because they can’t get out of the current mental state,” reports Michaels. “These people have the best intentions of being more focused, having more energy, feeling more creative, or getting a better night’s sleep, but just simply can’t get their mind to be on the same page. Brain Salon is the solution to that problem.”
You can practice visualization on your own or with a therapist (or an app or audio download of a therapist) guiding you through the imagery. You can also choose to do your visualization in silence or use listening aids, such as soothing music or a sound machine or a recording that matches your chosen setting: €”the sound of ocean waves if you’ve chosen a beach, for example.
However, most of the frequencies at which the brain operates are too low for the ears to hear. This is where binaural beats come in. If you play a tone of, let’s say 112Hz in one ear, and a tone of 100Hz in the other ear, your brain will “hear” the difference of 12Hz and entrain to that frequency. Continued exposure to a frequency of 12Hz will result in a state of non-drowsy relaxation accompanied by a decrease in mental chatter, nagging thoughts and worries.

Most massage therapists recommend getting a weekly massage, as this is the frequency that has shown the most significant benefit for most problems. However, even a monthly massage provides benefits. If you don’t have access to a good massage therapist, getting your muscles rubbed by a loved one works nearly as well. All it takes is a little bit of love to give a home-based massage. This can help connect you with your loved one, can act as a prelude for more intimate activities, and can build better bonds. A 15-minute foot massage from your husband has been reported to be one of the most intimate activities a husband and wife can share without engaging in sex.
Brainwave Entrainment audio technology was first developed and introduced to the public decades ago by Robert Monroe, through the Monroe Institute.  This organization used their brainwave entrainment audios as a tool to induce people into specifically directed out of body experiences as well as train remote viewers. Since then the crafting of brainwave entrainment audios has become a sophisticated art. These audios are now created and used by a number of businesses and individuals for a variety of purposes, most of which having to do with personal development and self-help.
Hi i’m just writing to let you all know that your Equisync CD’s are amazing! Just last night i was meditating to “Equisync II”. The one that has mostly theta binaural beats in it. I gotta tell you i have never had a meditation like i experienced with this CD. At certain points during the meditation it felt like my whole damn body was vibrating! That very night when i went to sleep I also had lucid dreams! It was so relaxing! I’ve tried “Equisync I” too, that one is amazing as well! I haven’t tried “Equisync III” yet. I can only imagine what that is going to be like!
Judith Pennington shares her extensive knowledge of gamma brain waves with John Dupuy, co-founder of iAwake Technologies. Judith is the founder of the Institute for the Awakened Mind, where practitioners from all over the world use the Mind Mirror EEG to map, monitor, train, and research advanced states of consciousness. Judith:        I fell in love with gamma in 2005. I had started seeing extended amplitudes up in the high beta range, which normally describe states of stress, anxiety, and … [Read more...]
Hello, I am [name removed], from [city, state removed]. I would like to say thank you for making the CDs. They’ve really helped my friend get over years of abuse and the sadness of loosing the only good friend he had after he moved to [city removed]. I plan on getting the cds for myself, once I get to working, and seeing if they will help me with my problems caused by [condition removed]. But, if you had seen my friend before, and compared it to now you would be amazed.

When I am using equisync I feel kind of like it is “pushing me” – I guess this is the right way to say it- to achieve better results, which I really like. I fall asleep quickly, and sleep all night and even wake up before my alarm goes off. I feel noticeably calm during the workday- which is very helpful for what I do. I really like the warm feeling (my whole body gets really warm during my equisync meditation sessions) and I feel kind of like Im floating while listening. The soothing rainfall is also very nice.
Exercise and stress research has typically focused on aerobic exercise. There have been consistent findings that people report feeling calmer after a 20- to 30-minute bout of aerobic exercise, and the calming effect can last for several hours after exercise. Recently, there has been an increased amount of research on the role of mind-body types of exercise such as yoga or Tai Chi. Unfortunately, there is somewhat limited research on the role of resistance exercise in stress management.
There are various types of viruses and parasites, and viruses are themselves parasites. While biological viruses are infectious agents that self-replicate inside living cells, computer viruses are destructive pieces of code that insert themselves into existing programs and change the actions of those programs. One particularly nasty type of computer virus that relies on humans for replication, known as a “Trojan horse,” disguises itself as something useful or interesting in order to persuade individuals to download and spread it. Similarly, a harmful ideology disguises itself as something beneficial in order to insert itself into the brain of an individual, so that it can instruct them to behave in ways that transmit the mental virus to others. The ability for parasites to modify the behavior of hosts in ways that increase their own “fitness” (i.e., their ability to survive and reproduce) while hurting the fitness of the host, is known as “parasitic manipulation.”
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