Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology – CIM14. Berlin, Germany 2014 BINAURAL AUDIO RELAXATION TECHNIQUES FOR PEOPLE WITH ANXIETY AND STRESS Geraldine Molina, Emilia Sainz, Levi Serrano, Santiago Rentería, Diana Urquiza Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe Correspondence should be addressed to: rosas_ger@hotmail.com, dianauf@itesm.mx    Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century,  there has  been a great  development  in  different  studies  related  to  encephalography and the psychological consequences of binaural audio. The objective of  this  paper  is  to  analyze  the  effects  of  binaural  audio  as  a relaxation method for people that suffer anxiety and stress.  The study took place at ITESM, Santa Fe Campus, where twenty participants around 21  years old  took part  of the study. They  were divided  into  two  groups,  Experimental  and  Control.  The first  one listened to the Theta binaural stimuli and the second one listened to a stimulus with nature sounds (birds and wind).  The  results  show  that  the  experimental  group  got  to  conscious relaxation.  The  control  group  had  an  unconscious  relaxation (sleep),  but  when  the  stimuli  stopped  they  recovered  their  stress level, for some participants it increased.  1. BACKGROUND At  the  end  of  the  19th  century,  Pierre  Janet,  a  French psychologist,  discovered  that  his  patients  relaxed  when  they were exposed to rhythmic light patterns. Hans Berger showed in 1924  that  brainwaves  could  be  read  and  studied  through  an encephalogram  [2].  The  first  studies  were  done  using  visual stimuli, while later studies were done using sounds [3].  Brainwaves  are  caused  by  changes  in  the  electric  tension between  two  points  in  the  brain  cortex.  The electroencephalogram  has  been  used  to  analyze neurophysiological  relations  that  exist  between  mental  states and  brainwave  frequencies.  When  somebody’s  mental  state changes  from  alert  to  somnolence,  low  amplitude  and  high frequency  brain  waves  turn  into  high  amplitude  and  low frequency [4]. 2. BINAURAL AUDIO Giuseppe  Tartini  discovered  combination  tones.  These  occur when  two  tones  are  heard  at  the  same  time  and  the  listener perceives  a  third  tone.  The  frequency  of  the  third  tone  is calculated  by  the  difference  between  the  first  two  tones,  as shown in equation 1.                               (∆   ) [8]                      (1)  The superior olivary  complex  integrates  the  phase differences, which  makes  possible  the  perception  of  the  third  tone.  For example, if the left ear  hears a  400Hz tone and  the  right ear  a 410Hz  tone,  the  listener  will  perceive  a  10Hz  tone  [9]. This third tone is also known as binaural frequency.    The  binaural  frequency  is  directed  from  the  superior  olivary complex to the reticular formation and the brain cortex, where the  electroencephalogram  can  read  its  effect.  The  Frequency Following  Response  (FFR)  phenomenon  happens  when  the frequency  read  by  the  encephalogram  is  equal  to  the combination tone frequency.  When this happens, the frequency resonates  in  the  brain  stimulating  the  reticular  formation inducing  different psychological  states.  Brainwave bands  and psychological consequences are shown in Table 1 [16].        Table 1: Brainwave Frequencies and Psychological Consequences  Brainwaves Frequency (Hz) Amplitude (μV) Mental StateDelta 0.1 - 3 20-200  Consciousness is  lost,  sleep without dreams Theta 4 - 7 20-100  REM  Sleep, meditation, and Creativity Alpha 8 - 12 20-60  Conscious Relaxation Beta 13 - 40 2-20  Concentration, Alert,  and cognition (High  levels are  associated with anxiety)  It  has  been  proved  that  delta  sound  waves in  binaural  audio therapy  have  anxiolytic  effects  on  patients  with  pre-surgery anxiety [7].  Theta  binaural  sound  waves  are also  helpful with relaxation and anxiety reduction [11]. According  to  the results  presented  by  the company  Regus, in Mexico,  75%  of  employed  people  suffer  from  stress  and anxiety. These cause social,  health,  and  economic problems  at the same  time that productivity decreases [5]. According to  the Mexican  National  Labor  Organization,  stress  means  that  the GDP decreases from 0.5 to 3.5%.  Stress  leads  to  anxiety,  irritability,  fear,  depression,  suicidal thoughts, and  lack of concentration. Some other symptoms  are headaches,  nausea,  dizziness,  muscular  tension, insomnia,  and tachycardia  [6].  There  are  different  techniques  to  induce relaxation  like  meditation.  New  relaxation  techniques  with binaural audio have been developed through Neurosciences. 3. OBJECTIVES •  Evaluate  and  analyze  binaural  audio  therapy  effects (Theta frequencies) on people that suffer anxiety and stress (Students at ITESM), in order to induce relaxation and reduce anxiety. •  Determine if  the  binaural  therapy  induced  relaxation  in  the experimental group and  compare  the results  to those  from the control group.  • Through the STAI test and the electroencephalogram results, determine which stimulus is more efficient. 4. HYPOTHESIS Hi:  Frequency  Following  Response  phenomenon  will  take place, as Delta and Theta bands will share frequencies with the combination tones.  Hi: Beta brainwaves will show up when the stimulus begins, as they are related to concentration and alertness.  5. EXPERIMENT Twenty  participants  were randomly  divided  into  two  groups, control and  experimental. The first group listened  to  sounds of 

Whatever your powerful mind believes to be true, it makes real in your experience. Your subconscious is a powerhouse of intelligence in action. It acts on your beliefs and perceptions. Theta binaural beats combined with subliminal messages reach deep into your subconscious mind to instill new ideas and beliefs. In a short time you’ll notice positive, even remarkable changes occurring in your life. The results are profound.
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You've probably heard that the tryptophan in turkey is to blame for that food coma on Thanksgiving. The amino acid, found in protein-containing foods, helps produce serotonin, "the chemical that regulates hunger and feelings of happiness and well-being," Mangieri says. On its own, tryptophan may have a calming effect. In a 2006 study published in the Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, men and women who were argumentative (based on personality tests) took either tryptophan supplements or a placebo for 15 days. Those who took tryptophan were perceived as more agreeable by their study partners at the end of the two weeks compared with when they didn't take it. (The study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.) Other foods high in tryptophan include nuts, seeds, tofu, fish, lentils, oats, beans, and eggs.

Animals are used in research without us fully understanding their consciousness, so why should we worry about creating artificial 3D brain-like structures?  Maybe we shouldn’t. This is something we, both the scientific community and the public, need to work out. A variety of 3D organoids including a colon, small intestine, liver, retinal cells (cells in the eye), and pancreas have been implanted into living organisms, in some cases, to repair and rescue tissue damage (colon, liver, and pancreas). Meaning  that organoids may have potential for cell therapy. Stem cell therapy is  already being tested in a number of clinical trials, and organoids could be the next step. We are not that many steps away from organoids reaching a human brain, therefore, it is worth considering how they  impact the brains of other living creatures.
It might surprise you to learn that biological stress is a fairly recent discovery. It wasn't until the late 1950s that endocrinologist Hans Selye first identified and documented stress. Symptoms of stress existed long before Selye, but his discoveries led to new research that has helped millions cope with stress. We’ve compiled a list of the top 10 ways to relieve stress.
In moderation, religious and spiritual practices can be great for a person’s life and mental well-being. But religious fundamentalism — which refers to the belief in the absolute authority of a religious text or leaders — is almost never good for an individual. This is primarily because fundamentalism discourages any logical reasoning or scientific evidence that challenges its scripture, making it inherently maladaptive.

Hello Jason, this is an unusually thoughtful discussion. Thank you for all your expertise and your kind manner of presenting and moderating it. I’m wondering if you have any experience with this: ever since I’ve been exposed to theta wave music, without headphones, I have found it irritating. And this is in spite of the fact that when I was first handed a CD by someone I knew well and trusted he was so confident I’d love it It didn’t occur to either of us that I might not. This happened again recently, which is about 10 years later, when I heard it playing overhead at an acupuncture clinic. I felt restless and even irritated, unable to zone out, which is unusual for me, during the treatment. I realized that the quality of my irritation was similar to what I’d felt listening to that CD a decade ago.So I asked if it was theta wave music and she said yes. The acupuncturist said that some people, but a vast minority, really dislike the music. She said that the few people who dislike it are not simply neutral, but actively dislike it. And she also said, but most people like it a lot. I’m just wondering what kind of factors might be present that would make a person feel so irritated by this music?
If you’ve used brainwave entrainment and experienced any benefits, feel free to share your experience in the comments section below. Be sure to discuss why you believe the entrainment was effective and/or whether you think it could’ve been a placebo effect. I’ve played around with the products and feel as if they are great for relaxation enhancement, inducing a temporary perceptual change (i.e. altered state of consciousness), and arousal reduction.
Hello Jason, this is an unusually thoughtful discussion. Thank you for all your expertise and your kind manner of presenting and moderating it. I’m wondering if you have any experience with this: ever since I’ve been exposed to theta wave music, without headphones, I have found it irritating. And this is in spite of the fact that when I was first handed a CD by someone I knew well and trusted he was so confident I’d love it It didn’t occur to either of us that I might not. This happened again recently, which is about 10 years later, when I heard it playing overhead at an acupuncture clinic. I felt restless and even irritated, unable to zone out, which is unusual for me, during the treatment. I realized that the quality of my irritation was similar to what I’d felt listening to that CD a decade ago.So I asked if it was theta wave music and she said yes. The acupuncturist said that some people, but a vast minority, really dislike the music. She said that the few people who dislike it are not simply neutral, but actively dislike it. And she also said, but most people like it a lot. I’m just wondering what kind of factors might be present that would make a person feel so irritated by this music?
Over the past few years, brainwave entrainment products have made a great rise in popularity, reaching more people than ever before and peaking their interest with the many benefits ensured. We now have a continually expanding pool of options to choose from, as well as more information and scientific research on the subject than in the past.  Brainwave Entrainment audios, and the products being made with this technology are literally changing the game in the personal development field, and have become one of the largest catalysts in our recent evolution as a human race.  In fact, these audios may be one of the main contributing factors in unlocking the potential to tap into the untouched 98% of our brains that we are currently not using.
There's no doubt that brainwave entrainment audio is a great technology for anyone who is interested in encouraging altered states of consciousness and it certainly can help people to reach deeper states of relaxation than they might normally have access to. I myself will often listen to brainwave entrainment music in order to enhance my practice of meditation. But let’s keep a balanced perspective, put all the marketing hype to one side for a moment and acknowledge that there is no brainwave entrainment technology in this world that can make you meditate like a Zen monk “at the touch of a button”, despite what some might like you to believe. The mind is NOT a machine. It moves through various states of consciousness in an organic way and at a natural pace. We certainly can guide and accelerate that process with the use of brainwave entrainment audio, but we cannot control it with the same sort of specificity and immediacy as you might control the speed of the car you drive.
Later, Anabel, Sun, and Moon head towards Poni Island. Anabel revealed to Sun and Moon that Xurkitree and Blacephalon are also making their way to Poni. Due to Poni not having an Island Kahuna, there would be no one capable enough of protecting the island from the two beasts. Sun, more fixated on delivering the next Mirage Berry to Tapu Fini, decided to head off and find someone who can help him search for it. After docking on Poni, Anabel and Moon arrived at Seafolk Village, which had been evacuated due to the Ultra Beasts' attacks. Worried that some injured people may still be there, Anabel requested to Moon that she help heal any hurt civilians. As they walked through Poni Wilds, Moon asked Anabel how she knew the names of the Ultra Beasts. Anabel then revealed that she knew because she is a Faller, a human who had passed through an Ultra Wormhole.

Today, EEG machines are used for diagnosing epilepsy and sleep disorders, for determining dosages for anesthesia, and measuring the brain activity of people in comas or suffering from brain trauma. EEG machines also continue to play a role in researching and understanding brainwave entrainment and developing new and better methods for delivering the benefits of this form of brainwave modification. 
Thanks Lorita. There hasn’t been any isochronic tones research that I’m aware of, for anti-aging, fat loss or attracting people, or any significant anecdotal feedback. You could combine positive affirmations or hypnosis scripts with isochronic tones to try and change habits and that could help with fat loss or build confidence to attract people. But it would be the affirmations and hypnosis doing most of the work, the isochronic tones would just be used to help relax the listener and put them in a more suggestible state. I don’t believe isochronic tones can affect those things, without being used in combination with some kind of vocal mental programming.
…I got curious about the Equisync II CDs and it was the 2nd track that started giving me some body signs that revealed me I was in the alpha state. I never practiced meditation before, however, I follow the Gurdjieff and Ouspensky teachings which, if you are not aware, tell us how to do quite the same thing as meditation in our everyday lives while performing our daily tasks. I also believe that Equisync II was more appropriate for me because my life is also dedicated to collective causes, my personal life is totally under control, but your CDs were able to relieve my severe depression after only 3 days of practicing, my chronic insomnia condition which had been lasting for over 27 years seemed to be finally healed. I am truly amazed, really.

Two solid hours of music with isochronic tones to help you calm down, find peace and let go. This music can be listened to with headphones or speakers. It has isochronic tones that will take you down to an Alpha level of 8.5 Hz – finally at the end bringing you back out of the dreamy state to an awakened 15 Hz. If you need peace, this healing calm music is for you!
Most of our Royalty Free brainwave entrainment music uses an audio technology known as "binaural beats". These binaural beats are embedded in the music in order to bring about desirable changes in brainwave activity, thereby encouraging various states of relaxation, deep meditation or sleep. When played with headphones, you may be able to hear the binaural beats as a subtle pulsing sound beneath the music.
When you're stressed, it can ratchet up anxiety hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol. "The omega-3 fatty acids in salmon have anti-inflammatory properties that may help counteract the negative effects of stress hormones," says Lisa Cimperman, RD, of the University Hospitals Case Medical Center and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. In a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, Oregon State University medical students who took omega-3 supplements had a 20% reduction in anxiety compared to the group given placebo pills. One 3-ounce serving of cooked wild salmon can have more than 2,000 milligrams of omega-3s, double the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association for people with heart disease.

Heart rate variability: A new study suggests that among those with low HRV (heart-rate variability), brainwave entrainment can increase HRV. Researchers studied individuals ages 20 to 70 and administered alpha brain stimulation. The alpha wave stimulation resulted in greater heart-rate variability. Since a low HRV is associated with early mortality and poor psychological and physical health, efforts made to increase it should be regarded as beneficial.


Exercise is one of the best ways to reduce stress. “When you exercise, your body releases endorphins, which are hormones that fight stress,” says Frank Lupin, MS, ATC, PES, a certified athletic trainer and a personal trainer for Coordinated Health in Bethlehem, Pa. “Exercise helps you get your mind off your problems and clears your head,” adds Thomas Plante, PhD, an associate professor of psychology at Santa Clara University in California. Here are eight different kinds of exercise that can heighten energy and provide stress relief.
There are general recommendations for stress management that can be applied in most situations. However, keep in mind that there are individual differences and preferences, so a “cookie cutter” approach should be avoided when making recommendations. A comprehensive stress management program will include specific techniques prescribed on an individual basis, but general stress management recommendations are presented in Table 2.
Joseph Kao, creator of Journey to the Center of the Self, a deep, 30-minute, guided transpersonal meditation, accompanied by music embedded with advanced brainwave entrainment technology and followed by 30 minutes of only the brainwave entrainment music, talks with iAwake’s CEO, John Dupuy, about all that went into the making of this meditation tool masterpiece. Transcending and Including the Little Self John:           One thing I find so remarkable about your guided meditation in Journey to … [Read more...]
I can offer a hypothetical--however do not know know practical it will turn out to be. There is a fair amonut of bad science on this topic on you tube. The gamma wave frequency is associated with attentional focus and arguably a unified sense of self. If it could be entrained it should lead to a meditative focus-like exceptionally well-trained meditators. Some but not all studies on meditating Buddhist monks suggest this is so. Does this really and more generally occur--I will say there is nothing lost in trying--we all go into a 40Hz range on occasion without ill effect-- but I would not put confidence in the purported methods out there at present. Good luck.

Essentially, the brain is a biological computer, and an ideology is a set of coded instructions, or “cultural software,” that is running on the brain’s hardware. Esteemed philosopher and cognitive scientist Daniel Dennett insightfully described how ideas can control minds when he said, “The haven all memes depend on reaching is the human mind, but a human mind is itself an artifact created when memes restructure a human brain in order to make it a better habitat for memes.” In this regard, it is often not the brain that controls the mind, but the memes that compose the mind that control the brain. This is especially the case when the meme is a religion.
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