Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology – CIM14. Berlin, Germany 2014 nature (birds and wind) while the second group listened to theta binaural sound waves. Both groups listened to the stimulus through headphones. During the experiment, participants were monitored with the Neurosky Mindwave Interface, which was connected through Processing to a Max Patch that saved all the data in a ‘.csv’ file. Before the stimulus, a baseline EEG took place and the participants answered the “Trait” part of the STAI test and a pre-experiment “State” version of the test. After the experiment, participants answered a post-experiment “State” STAI and a post-experiment EEG also took place. Each experiment was developed with one participant at a time in a controlled environment. American Psychological Association Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct 2002 were followed. 6. MATERIALS • Herman Miller chair • Neurosky Mindwave Interface • Maximum Voltage – 1mV • Maximum radiofrequency Range (Bluetooth) 10m • Maximum transference rate through RF – 250kb/s • Sample rate – 512Hz • Battery cycle – 6-8h • MacBook Pro 7. SOFTWARE • Processing 1.5.1 • Microsoft Excel • Max 6 • Braintocsv V1.5: Application developed in Max 6 by Santiago Rentería, which collates data gathered from the Mindwave interface into a ‘.csv’ file. 8. DOCUMENTS • STAI questionnaire (Annex 2) • STAI “Trait”: Measures anxiety as a temporal state. • STAI “State”: Measures anxiety based on how people feel on a daily basis. • Consent Letter (Annex 3) 9. CONTROL ENVIRONMENT Recording Studio Control Room located at Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe. Fixed temperature at 22ºC and acoustically isolated. 10. STIMULI • Experimental group – Binaural Theta frequencies • Control group – Nature environmental sounds 11. PROCEDURE • The participant is asked to read and sign a consent letter. • A pre-experimental three-minute encephalogram is taken and the participant is required to answer State and Trait STAI tests. • The corresponding stimulus is played during ten minutes and an EEG is taken. • The State STAI test is answered and a post-experiment EEG is taken. 12. VISUAL DATA ANALYSIS The stimuli took place from second 180 to second 774. (Graphs in Annex 1) 12.1 Theta The significant time range was from second 3 to second 948. The most significant moments were the following: (see annex A1.5) s = 189; p = 0.014; t = 1.025 s = 495; p = 0.002; t = -1.923 s = 780; p = 0.001; t = -2.349 12.2 Meditation The significant time range was from second 240 to second 912. The most significant moments were the following: (see annex A1.3) s = 240; p = 0.042; t = .0.685 s = 522; p = 0.013; t = 0.546 s = 702; p = 0.016; t = 0.897 12.3 Delta The significant time range was from second 12 to second 954. The most significant moments were the following: (see annex A1.10) s = 177; p = 0.046; t = 1.696 s = 627; p = 0.016; t = -1.366 s = 912; p = 0.007; t = 1.758 12.4 Attention The significant time range was from second 243 to second 870. The most significant moments were the following: (see annex A1.11) s = 243; p = 0.021; t = 0.672 s = 513; p = 0.005; t = 0.722 s = 753; p = 0.017; t = 0.383 12.5 STAI Variations were found in STAI-State pre-experiment and post-experiment: • Control group results rose from 19 to 21 • Experimental group results decreased from 20 to 15. Variations between both groups were found in the STAI –Trait: • Experimental group with a score of 32 in STAI-T test outran control group by 4 points 13. RESULT ANALYSIS Samples were analyzed every three seconds. They were later statistically distributed according to the T-student test in order to find differences between both groups. For this experiment, the significant p value was p<0.05, this means that the probability is less than 5% T-student detailed analysis: • The meditation value is similar in both groups, (see graph A1.3). T-student function shows less significant points for this parameter. This means both stimuli induced relaxation to the participants. • Theta values are higher in the control group, especially after second 510 (see graph A1.5) almost at the middle of the stimulus. • STAI “State” post-experiment results from the experimental group are higher than the control. Therefore, theta binaural frequencies were more effective as an anxiolytic stimulus. (see graphs A1.1 and A1.2) • Delta values are higher after second 285 in the control group (see graph A1.10). This indicates deep sleep and losing of consciousness over the body (unconscious relaxation). It is highly possible that the participant fell asleep or got to the first stages of sleep. • There is a significant difference in delta between experimental and control groups after second 870 (post-stimulus). For the
With digital upgrades, Berger’s machine is still in use today, known as an electroencephalography machine, or EEG. Berger used his machine to study the brains of psychologically normal and abnormal people and discovered the first brainwave, called the alpha wave and also known as the Berger wave, along with the faster beta wave, which he observed suppressing the alpha wave when subjects opened their closed eyes.
Stress is a significant individual and public health problem that is associated with numerous physical and mental health concerns. It is estimated that between 75% and 90% of primary care physician visits are caused by stress-related illnesses (2). Cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, depression, anxiety, immune system suppression, headaches, back and neck pain, and sleep problems are some of the health problems associated with stress (4,8). These conditions are some of the most burdensome health problems in the United States based on health care costs, the number of people affected, and the impact on individual lives. Extreme levels of stress were reported by 22% of respondents from the 2011 Stress in America™ survey, and 39% reported that their level of stress had increased during the past year (3). More than 80% of the survey respondents at the WorldatWork Conference in 2012 reported that stress moderately or significantly contributed to their health care costs (6).
By the 1980s, entrainment technology had merged with advancements in microelectronics technology, making it possible to develop even more sophisticated audio and visual brainwave entrainment products for the marketplace. In the last two decades, a number of scientific studies have reported brainwave entrainment as an effective remedy for ADD, academic learning problems, and improving memory and cognition.
The specific benefits and claims from this technology are often disputed and considered scientifically questionable. One problem is that there are few experiments that have utilized brainwave entrainment for the purpose of treating a specific psychological ailment (e.g. insomnia). And the experiments that have been conducted are largely backed by corporations that sell the software; hence it could be speculated that there are conflicts of interest.
Gamma brainwave states are the most rapid in frequency. Gamma has long been considered the brainwave that is able to link and process information from all parts of the brain. It is the frequency that brings with it the ability to process large amounts of information in relatively small amounts of time. Think of generating more Gamma activity as getting a processor upgrade for your brain.
“Wow, wow, wow! When I coach people, the first thing I do is help them change their state as quickly as possible – and now it’s as easy as using one of the Brain Salon sessions. I can’t wait to share this program with all of my clients – once they use Brain Salon to easily get into a powerful state, then the work I do is going to take them to levels they never imagined possible…”