Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology – CIM14. Berlin, Germany 2014 BINAURAL AUDIO RELAXATION TECHNIQUES FOR PEOPLE WITH ANXIETY AND STRESS Geraldine Molina, Emilia Sainz, Levi Serrano, Santiago Rentería, Diana Urquiza Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe Correspondence should be addressed to: rosas_ger@hotmail.com, dianauf@itesm.mx Abstract: Since the beginning of the 21st century, there has been a great development in different studies related to encephalography and the psychological consequences of binaural audio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of binaural audio as a relaxation method for people that suffer anxiety and stress. The study took place at ITESM, Santa Fe Campus, where twenty participants around 21 years old took part of the study. They were divided into two groups, Experimental and Control. The first one listened to the Theta binaural stimuli and the second one listened to a stimulus with nature sounds (birds and wind). The results show that the experimental group got to conscious relaxation. The control group had an unconscious relaxation (sleep), but when the stimuli stopped they recovered their stress level, for some participants it increased. 1. BACKGROUND At the end of the 19th century, Pierre Janet, a French psychologist, discovered that his patients relaxed when they were exposed to rhythmic light patterns. Hans Berger showed in 1924 that brainwaves could be read and studied through an encephalogram [2]. The first studies were done using visual stimuli, while later studies were done using sounds [3]. Brainwaves are caused by changes in the electric tension between two points in the brain cortex. The electroencephalogram has been used to analyze neurophysiological relations that exist between mental states and brainwave frequencies. When somebody’s mental state changes from alert to somnolence, low amplitude and high frequency brain waves turn into high amplitude and low frequency [4]. 2. BINAURAL AUDIO Giuseppe Tartini discovered combination tones. These occur when two tones are heard at the same time and the listener perceives a third tone. The frequency of the third tone is calculated by the difference between the first two tones, as shown in equation 1. (∆   ) [8] (1) The superior olivary complex integrates the phase differences, which makes possible the perception of the third tone. For example, if the left ear hears a 400Hz tone and the right ear a 410Hz tone, the listener will perceive a 10Hz tone [9]. This third tone is also known as binaural frequency. The binaural frequency is directed from the superior olivary complex to the reticular formation and the brain cortex, where the electroencephalogram can read its effect. The Frequency Following Response (FFR) phenomenon happens when the frequency read by the encephalogram is equal to the combination tone frequency. When this happens, the frequency resonates in the brain stimulating the reticular formation inducing different psychological states. Brainwave bands and psychological consequences are shown in Table 1 [16]. Table 1: Brainwave Frequencies and Psychological Consequences Brainwaves Frequency (Hz) Amplitude (μV) Mental StateDelta 0.1 - 3 20-200 Consciousness is lost, sleep without dreams Theta 4 - 7 20-100 REM Sleep, meditation, and Creativity Alpha 8 - 12 20-60 Conscious Relaxation Beta 13 - 40 2-20 Concentration, Alert, and cognition (High levels are associated with anxiety) It has been proved that delta sound waves in binaural audio therapy have anxiolytic effects on patients with pre-surgery anxiety [7]. Theta binaural sound waves are also helpful with relaxation and anxiety reduction [11]. According to the results presented by the company Regus, in Mexico, 75% of employed people suffer from stress and anxiety. These cause social, health, and economic problems at the same time that productivity decreases [5]. According to the Mexican National Labor Organization, stress means that the GDP decreases from 0.5 to 3.5%. Stress leads to anxiety, irritability, fear, depression, suicidal thoughts, and lack of concentration. Some other symptoms are headaches, nausea, dizziness, muscular tension, insomnia, and tachycardia [6]. There are different techniques to induce relaxation like meditation. New relaxation techniques with binaural audio have been developed through Neurosciences. 3. OBJECTIVES • Evaluate and analyze binaural audio therapy effects (Theta frequencies) on people that suffer anxiety and stress (Students at ITESM), in order to induce relaxation and reduce anxiety. • Determine if the binaural therapy induced relaxation in the experimental group and compare the results to those from the control group. • Through the STAI test and the electroencephalogram results, determine which stimulus is more efficient. 4. HYPOTHESIS Hi: Frequency Following Response phenomenon will take place, as Delta and Theta bands will share frequencies with the combination tones. Hi: Beta brainwaves will show up when the stimulus begins, as they are related to concentration and alertness. 5. EXPERIMENT Twenty participants were randomly divided into two groups, control and experimental. The first group listened to sounds of
Arthritis (inflammation of the joints) produces pain, loss of movement, and sometimes swelling. It is caused by tissue injury or joint disease. The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Fibromyalgia often is considered an arthritis-related condition, but it is not a true form of arthritis because it does not cause inflammation or damage to the joints. According to the Arthritis Foundation, nearly one in three adults has arthritis or chronic joint symptoms, and arthritis is the leading cause of disability among Americans older than age 15.

Another uncontrolled study asked eight adults to listen to a binaural beat CD with delta (1 to 4 Hz) beat frequencies for 60 days straight. The participants filled out surveys before and after the 60-day period that asked questions about their mood and quality of life. The results of the study found that listening to binaural beats for 60 days significantly reduced anxiety and increased the overall quality of life of these participants. Since the study was small, uncontrolled, and relied on patient surveys to collect data, larger studies will be needed to confirm these effects.
Stress levels and a proper diet are closely related. When we’re overwhelmed, we often forget to eat well and resort to using sugary, fatty snack foods as a pick-me-up. Try to avoid sugary snacks and plan ahead. Fruits and vegetables are always good, and fish with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce the symptoms of stress. A tuna sandwich really is brain food.
The phenomena of brainwave entrainment was first described in the scientific literature in 1973 by Gerald Oster in results published in an article in Scientific American entitled, “Auditory Beats in the Brain”. He showed that a specific brainwave could be induced when a person heard two separate, but closely related, sound frequencies, one in each ear. He discovered that when the frequencies heard by each ear differed by about 10 hertz, the brainwave pattern of the person hearing the sound would synchronize to the difference between the two frequencies. For example, if the person heard a 410 hertz sound in one ear and a 400 hertz sound in the other ear, their brainwaves would stabilize at the difference between the two, or 10 hertz. This technique is called binaural beats, and it is a fundamental principle of brainwave entrainment methods.
Targeted hemispheric changes: Some speculate that specific alterations in brain waves can be made on an individual basis. In other words, you can target one frequency in one hemisphere (via the right ear) and another distinct frequency in the other hemisphere (via the left ear). The left ear affects the right hemisphere and right ear affects the left hemisphere.
All you need to experiment with binaural beats is a binaural beat audio and a pair of headphones or earbuds. You can easily find audio files of binaural beats online, such as on YouTube, or you can purchase CDs or download audio files directly to your mp3 player or other device. As mentioned earlier, for a binaural beat to work, the two tones have to have frequencies of less than 1000 Hz, and the difference between the two tones can’t be more than 30 Hz.
Now for a Delta Brainwave MP3 that is bound to take you to another world.. and most likely enter into a dream state – many people listening to this MP3 will fall asleep since it resembles entrainment sleep patterns. This session will slowly ramp down to the deepest Delta levels, and after it you are likely to feel that you have had a wonderful power nap. Headphones or speakers can be used with this MP3.

Like yoga, tai chi is a series of self-paced, flowing body movements and breathing techniques. Although the movements have their roots in martial arts, they are meant to calm the mind and condition the body — making tai chi an excellent choice for stress relief. According to recent studies, this mind-body practice has many health benefits: Tai chi can help build bone density, lower blood pressure, boost the immune system, and even ease symptoms of conditions like heart failure, arthritis, and fibromyalgia. Another advantage is that once you learn the moves, you can practice them anywhere and at any time — making it an easy activity for people of all ages to incorporate into everyday life.
The brain will entrain to the strongest stimulus. If you combine binaural beats with isochronic tones, your brainwaves will entrain to the isochronic tones. If anything, when you combine the two I believe it makes the track less effective because it makes it harder for the brain to decipher between the two and synchronise to a single beat. There are lots of websites with compelling marketing about the benefits of combining the two together in some funky way, but I haven’t seen any research or lots of anecdotal feedback even to suggest it’s effective to combine them.
Chronic fatigue: Subjective improvements in energy level may be reported by those who increase stimulatory beta and gamma waves. Fast waves tend to be associated with higher levels of arousal. Low arousal is associated with chronic fatigue and may be exacerbated by slow brain waves (e.g. theta and delta). As of now there aren’t any studies that have analyzed various protocols for their effect on a person’s energy or arousal.

Daniel Boone, in Kentucky, made his fortune trading ginseng, although he is remembered as a fur trader. It is reported in a book called Woodland Nuggets of Gold that George Washington wrote to Boone, "The war effort needs money, bring ginseng." American ginseng helped support the revolutionary war effort, and the most valuable cargo to leave New York by ship in that time period was in the Empress of China, which was carrying American ginseng to the Orient.
B6 is part of the B-complex vitamins and something you probably get an adequate amount of as part of a predominantly vegetable-based diet. However, during menopause, you may need to increase it more than your dietary intake allows. In this case, a low-level B6 or pyridoxine supplement can help give you a boost. In fact, taking a general B-complex supplement that includes adequate levels of B6 will provide you with an increase of all of the B vitamins, mostly because they work together.
…I got curious about the Equisync II CDs and it was the 2nd track that started giving me some body signs that revealed me I was in the alpha state. I never practiced meditation before, however, I follow the Gurdjieff and Ouspensky teachings which, if you are not aware, tell us how to do quite the same thing as meditation in our everyday lives while performing our daily tasks. I also believe that Equisync II was more appropriate for me because my life is also dedicated to collective causes, my personal life is totally under control, but your CDs were able to relieve my severe depression after only 3 days of practicing, my chronic insomnia condition which had been lasting for over 27 years seemed to be finally healed. I am truly amazed, really.
I also believe that the dangers of brainwave entrainment should be further explored as well. There are relatively vague benefits, but it remains unclear as to whether entraining certain frequencies may be detrimental to performance or induce harm. Despite the fact that brainwave entrainment has existed for a long term, it remains an understudied niche in neuroscience.
Popular stress relief “solutions” we often turn to may offer a temporary reprieve, but actually make our situation worse in the long run. Alcohol puts additional physical stress on the liver and brain; mindless forms of entertainment like TV deaden our mental focus which is vital to handling stressful situations; and prescription drugs targeting stress and anxiety usually have side-effects far worse than the symptoms they’re treating!
Location/Cultivation: American ginseng is native to the eastern United States and Canada, from the Catskill Mountains of New York and the Berkshire Mountains of Massachusetts, north into Ontario, west to Iowa, south to Arkansas and Kentucky, and east through the highlands of Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. American ginseng requires rich soil with humus and full shade, and it prefers deciduous woodlands, especially those with tulip poplars. It takes a minimum of seven years to grow a mature root from the time of germination. Due to this plant''s endangered status, wild plants should be left alone, and you should avoid purchasing products labeled "wild American ginseng." The best American ginseng on the market is grown organically in the woods.
The brain is composed of millions of specialized cells called neurons. Neurons send signals to other neurons using electro-chemical messengers called neuro-transmitters that attach to receiving sites located on the neurons themselves. There is a space between the end of the neuron and the receptor called the synaptic gap. As neuro-transmitter chemicals move across this gap, a small electrical charge is created. 

Exercise is one of the best ways to reduce stress. “When you exercise, your body releases endorphins, which are hormones that fight stress,” says Frank Lupin, MS, ATC, PES, a certified athletic trainer and a personal trainer for Coordinated Health in Bethlehem, Pa. “Exercise helps you get your mind off your problems and clears your head,” adds Thomas Plante, PhD, an associate professor of psychology at Santa Clara University in California. Here are eight different kinds of exercise that can heighten energy and provide stress relief.
Stress levels and a proper diet are closely related. When we’re overwhelmed, we often forget to eat well and resort to using sugary, fatty snack foods as a pick-me-up. Try to avoid sugary snacks and plan ahead. Fruits and vegetables are always good, and fish with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce the symptoms of stress. A tuna sandwich really is brain food.
Anyone who has sought out different methods for enhancing cognitive ability will probably have come across a technique known as Brainwave Entrainment. However, it is a fairly niche area of brain training, meaning that this form of stimulation is often overlooked in favour of more mainstream methods. The following outlines what Brainwave Entrainment actually is, how it is used, and some of the benefits attributed to it.

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